Thyroid nodules

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland found at the front of the lower part of the neck. It produces thyroid hormones which control our metabolism. Nodules (lumps) can form in the thyroid gland and they are more common in females. These nodules are usually painless. The majority of thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous) and only about 10% are malignant. 

When I see a patient with a thyroid nodule, I would do a nasopharyngoscopy, fine needle biopsy and ultrasound to determine if the nodule is benign or malignant. 

If the nodule is benign, then options include monitoring the nodule with regular ultrasound scans or surgical removal if the nodule is large and causing symptoms like breathing or swallowing difficulty.

If the nodule is malignant, then surgery is required and post-operative radio-iodine treatment may also be necessary.